SCIENTIFIC NAME: Cardellina canadensis
The Canada Warbler is a small, well- proportioned bird with a straight, sharp bill. Compared to other warblers, it has a slightly longer tail with a fuller chest.
It has unstreaked blue-gray upperparts, canary yellow underparts, and white undertail coverts. It has a whitish eye- ring and a yellow streak on the lore.
Both sexes measure about 4.7 - 5.9 inches in length, with a wingspan of 6.7 - 8.7 inches and weight of 9 - 13 grams.
Males have a necklace of black spotting across upper breast. They also have black sides of face and forehead.
Females have dusky gray necklace. Legs are pale pinkish orange. Bill is thin and pointed.
This species lacks pale wing bars and tail spots.
Both sexes are similar, but females are duller.
Immature birds are similar to adults, but duller, with less streaking and facial pattern.
CALL: A quiet, dry “chick” or “ckeck”.
SONG: A rapid burst of short notes, ending with a three notes phrase, the last one loud and rising in pitch.
Feeds on flying insects and insect larvae, also spiders, snails, worms and seasonally, some fruit.
Breeds in moist mixed forests with dense undergrowth, and waterside thickets.
Winters in mid-and-upper-elevation habitats, and in coffee plantations and hedgerows.
Breeds across Canada from E British Columbia to Nova Scotia, southward to E Minnesota, N Michigan and Connecticut, and farther southward, in mountains to N Georgia.
Winters in Northern South America, including Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and northern Brazil.
The female builds an open cup-shaped nest with decayed leaves, grass, lichens and moss, and lined with black rootlets. It is located on or just above the ground, among ferns, stumps and fallen logs.
A dense nest site cover seems to be an important habitat requirement.
She lays 4 - 5 white eggs shaded with cinnamon or brown and incubates for about 12 days.