SCIENTIFIC NAME: Turdus iliacus
Adults have grayish-brown plumage on upperparts and head, with a conspicuous, long, buffy-white supercilium, and more or less distinct malar stripe.
The underparts are buffy-white with orange-rufous flanks and underwing- coverts. Several long streaks are formed with blackish spots that start from the throat, and continue to breast and body sides. Eyes are dark brown. Legs and feet are pinkish-brown.
Both sexes are similar.
Juveniles resemble adults, but their upperparts are streaked buff and underparts are heavily spotted with less orange-red on flanks than in adults.
BILL: black with a yellow base.
SIZE: measures about 7.9 - 9.45 inches in length, with a wingspan of 13.75 inches.
WEIGHT: weighs about 40 - 80 grams.
COLOR: grayish-brown, buffy white, orange-rufous, and black.
Insects, spiders, earthworms, snails, and other small invertebrates. Also fruits and berries, particularly during migration and in the winter months.
BREEDS: forest, mainly in birch or mixed conifer woodland in lowland, along river valley, floodplains and edges of wet areas.
WINTER: woods, hedgerows and more open fields, pastures, city parks, gardens and orchards.
Northern and Eastern Europe, East across Siberia to Kolyma and Altai. Migrates in Western and Southern Europe, North Africa, Black and Caspian Sea basins and adjacent Southwestern Asia.
SONG: Includes two parts or more. It starts with a few short flute-like notes, followed by faster twittering variable in length and pitch.
The migrating flocks utter a low twittering chorus, also heard on the wintering grounds.
CALL: Typical call is a high-pitched and far-carrying “dssssi” or “srieh” note, frequently given as contact call both in flight and on the ground.
In the winter flocks, the contact note is a harsh “zieh” and a short “chup” or “chittick”, also given when the birds are going to roost.
The alarm call is a series of sharp rattling “trrrt trrrt trrrt” and also shorter, sharp “jipp jipp”.
NEST: The nest is a bulky cup made of grass, moss and twigs, bound with mud and pieces of plants. It is lined with finer grass, stems and leaves.
EGGS: 4 - 6 pale blue eggs with fine reddish-brown markings.
INCUBATION: 10 - 14 days, female.
NESTLING PHASE: 12 - 15 days.
They forage on the ground, also in trees and bushes. They take food from the ground surface, and may occasionally dig for earthworms.
They spend the night at communal roost in winter, gathering in large flocks in woods, thickets, plantations and old hedgerows.